Many universities use Cite Them Right by Richard Pears and Graham Shields as their referencing standard. This easy-to-use book will enable you to reference just about anything from a tweet to an online journal to a television show. Cite Them Right has also been re-envisaged as a user-friendly online platform, Cite Them Right Online which your university may subscribe to. Ask in the library to find out if you have access!
More information, tips and advice can be found in this section.
What is referencing?
Referencing is the process of acknowledging the sources you have used in writing your essay, assignment or piece of work. It allows the reader to access your source documents as quickly and easily as possible in order to verify, if necessary, the validity of your arguments and the evidence on which they are based.
You identify sources by citing them in the text of your assignment (called citations or in-text citations) and referencing them at the end of your assignment (called the reference list or end-text citations).
The difference between reference lists and bibliographies
The reference list only includes the sources cited in your text. It is not the same thing as a bibliography, which uses the same referencing style, but also includes all material (for example, background readings) used in the preparation of your work.
To reference successfully, it is essential that, as a matter of course, you systematically note down full details of author, date, title and publication details of any material you use at the time you use it. For web pages, e-journals and ebooks, write down the url address and the date that you accessed the source. Besides being good academic practice, this ensures that you do not have the problem of trying to find sources you may have used weeks or months previously.
What's the benefit of accurate referencing?
By referring to the works of established authorities and experts in your subject area, you can add weight to your comments and arguments. This helps to demonstrate that you have read widely, and considered and analysed the writings of others. Remember, good referencing can help you attain a better grade or mark (often between five and ten percent of the total). Most importantly, good referencing is essential to avoid any possible accusation of plagiarism.
What is plagiarism?Plagiarism is a term that describes the unacknowledged use of someone's work. This includes material or ideas from any (published or unpublished) sources, whether print, web-based (even if freely available) or audiovisual. Using the words or ideas of others without referencing your source would be construed as plagiarism and is a very serious academic offence. At the end of the day, it is regarded as stealing intellectual property.
The following are considered forms of plagiarism:
- Passing off as your own a piece of work that is partly or wholly the work of another student
- Citing and referencing sources that you have not used
- Quoting, summarising or paraphrasing material in your assignment without citing the original source
- 'Recycling' a piece of your own work that you have previously submitted for another module or course (i.e. self-plagiarism).
How can you avoid plagiarism?
In many cases, students who find themselves accused of plagiarising often have done so unintentionally. Poor organisation and time management, as well as a failure to understand good academic practice, are often to blame. You might therefore find it helpful to note the following points:
- Manage your time and plan your work – ensure that you have enough time to prepare, read and write
- When paraphrasing an author's text, ensure that you use your own words and a sentence structure sufficiently different from the original text
- In your notes, highlight in colour/bold any direct quotations you want to use in your assignment - this will help to ensure you use quotation marks with an appropriate reference when you are writing up your work
- Allow enough time to check your final draft for possible referencing errors or omissions: for example, check that all your in-text citations have a corresponding entry in your reference list, and vice versa
- Save all your notes, files, printouts and so on until you receive your final mark or grade.
What is common knowledge?
In all academic or professional fields, experts regard some ideas as common knowledge. This is generally defined as facts, dates, events and information that are expected to be known by someone studying or working in a particular field. The facts can be found in numerous places and are likely to be known by many people: for example, that Margaret Thatcher was a British prime minister. Such information does not generally have to be referenced.
However, as a student you may only have just started to study a particular subject, so the material you are reading may not yet be common knowledge to you. In order to decide if the material you want to use in your assignment constitutes common knowledge, you need to ask yourself the following questions:
- Did I know this information before I started my course?
- Did this information/idea come from my own brain?
- If the answer to either or both of the questions is 'no', then the information is not common knowledge to you.
- In these cases you need to cite and reference your source(s).
This content was written by Richard Pears and Graham Shields, authors of Cite Them Right.
The six-point code
To make it easier for you to decide exactly when you need to cite, use the following simple six-point code. This is another of those notes worth sticking to the side of your computer screen or pinning to the notice board above your desk. Wherever you keep it, make sure it’s just a glance away.
When to cite:
- Distinctive ideas
Whenever the ideas or opinions are distinctive to one particular source.
- Distinctive structure or organising strategy
Even though you may have put it into your own words, if the author has adopted a particular method of approaching a problem, or there is a distinctive intellectual structure to what’s written, for example to an argument or to the analysis of a concept, then you must cite the source.
- Information or data from a particular source
If you’ve gathered information from a source in the form of facts, statistics, tables and diagrams, you will need to cite the source, so your readers will know who gathered the information and where to find it.
- Verbatim phrase or passage
Even a single word, if it is distinctive to your author’s argument. You must use quotation marks and cite the source.
- If it’s not common knowledge
Whenever you mention some aspect of another person’s work, unless the information or opinion is widely known, you must cite the source, so your readers can follow it up.
- Whenever in doubt, cite it!
It will do no harm, as long as you’re not citing just to impress the examiner in the mistaken belief that getting good grades depends upon trading facts, in this case references, for marks.
How to cite a reference
You now know when to cite a reference, but you also need to know how to cite the reference correctly. Different subjects will cite references using different systems, but there are two main methods:
The Harvard System
- Watts (1999) offers suggestions about how to prepare for university.
- It has been found by Holmes and Watkins (2000), that criminals are …
- This module is no longer offered (Smith, 2004).
- If you use the Harvard system in the main body of your work, you will be expected to cite your references in full in your bibliography.
Footnotes are flagged in the main body of the text by a number and then the reference written in full at the bottom of the corresponding page. For example:
‘….and so it was thought that, “A new feeling came into existence, a sense that people had become separated from nature.”’ 1
If the quote is from a book, the citation should follow:
Author surname,initial(s)/ Title of book/ (Publisher/ Place of publication)/ Page number
Peck J and Coyle M, Literary Terms and Criticism, (Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2002), p.70
If it were a journal article, you would cite:
Author surname, initial(s)/ ‘Title of article’ in Journal title/ Volume number (Issue number)/ (Year)/Page number
Peck J and Coyle M, “Romantic poetry” in Literary Terms and Criticism, 4 (1) (2002), p.70
Endnotes should be referenced in exactly the same way except they are found all together at the end of a chapter or at the end of the book.
For electronic sources, give the web page address and the date you downloaded the information. You should also cite the name of the reference and the original source if you have this information.
Once you are clear about this, all you are left with is how to eradicate from your work the accidental cases of plagiarism, focussing on organisation and processing.
Most of these are due to poor organisation. Many of us leave ourselves inadequate time to get our work done, so we rush research and note taking and in the process blend the ideas of our authors into our own, not knowing which are which. Inevitably when we come to write we pass them all off as our own. There are, therefore, simple things you can do to avoid this.
The first is obvious: leave enough time so you don’t rush your work. Make sure you have broken the task up into distinct stages (interpreting the essay question, research, planning, writing, and revision) and you have given enough time for each with time between them for your mind to process the ideas effectively. To make absolutely sure give yourself 25% more time that you think you need. As you complete each assignment you will be able to judge for yourself whether this is too much or too little. (See Chapters 19 and 20 in How to Write Better Essays).
- Record the details
Put the details of the text you’re using clearly at the top of the first page of your notes: the author’s name, the title of the text, page numbers, and the date of publication. Not only will this save you a great deal of time and stress in trying to track down a reference long after you have used it, but it will be an obvious reminder that the ideas you’re noting are someone else’s and may need citing.
- Separate your own ideas from your author’s
This can be done quite simply. For example, you could just put the material you borrow from your sources in a different colour, or on different sheets of paper, or even in different computer files.
But organisation is just one part of the remedy. Once you’ve organised your work you’re still left with problems that arise from the way you do your research.
- Active processing
The simple answer here is to avoid all passive, surface-level processing in which you merely read for understanding, note accurately what the author says, and then reproduce it word for word in your work. If you can avoid studying when you’re tired and break up your study sessions into manageable blocks of no more than two hours, then you are likely to avoid lapsing into passive, uncritical processing of the material.
Instead process the material actively. In other words, structure what you read by analysing it into key points and sub-points, and criticise and evaluate it, rather than just passively accept what you read. In this way you will free yourself from being dictated by the author as to what is most important in what you read. You yourself will decide what should be noted and this will be dictated by the questions you, not the author, have already decided are most important.
As a result you will probably borrow less, because you can see it is not as important as you might otherwise have thought, and you will integrate it within your own thinking, so that you impose your own distinctive organisation and structure on it. (See Chapter 13 of How to Write Better Essays).
- Interpret the question
However, to do this effectively you must have clear in your mind the key issues you want to explore in the text and the questions to which you want answers. This means you must in the first stage of essay writing have analysed the implications of the essay question you are tackling. This way you reveal not only the questions you want the text to answer, but also what you yourself already know about the issues. Armed with this you’re less likely to be dictated to by your authors and adopt their ideas wholesale. (See Chapters 3 to 8 in How to Write Better Essays).
- Break the text up into manageable units
Still, it’s all too easy to say don’t be dictated to by the authors you read, but when you get down to it each author writes in a way best calculated to present the most persuasive account. He or she wants to convince you that their point of view is correct, and as you are less experienced in the topic your ideas are bound to be heavily influenced by what you read.
All of this you will know to be true from your own experience. So, do a simple thing to give you every chance of liberating yourself from enthralment to your author. Break down a chapter you’re reading into manageable units, which you can read, understand and then put aside so that you can take your notes without using the book. If the unit is of a manageable size you should be able to recall the key ideas and create the structure of the passage in your own terms. Don’t worry about details – you can always come back for them later. Be guided by your interpretation of the implications of the question and your own judgement, not the author’s, as to what is most important. You must allow your ideas to come through; you’re not just a sophisticated recycler of received opinions.
This highlights the problem from which many of our difficulties arise: how are we to let ourselves and our own ideas into the picture? Never read and take notes at the same time. You will fail to create sufficient distance between your ideas and the author’s, and you will find yourself merely reproducing them verbatim. (See Chapters 14 and 15 of How to Write Better Essays).
There is, of course, one element running throughout this advice: the importance of having the confidence to trust in your own ideas and your own abilities to express and develop arguments as well as anyone. Beware of assuming that there are just right answers, which the author has presented correctly. As soon as you convince yourself of this, there is nothing more you can do but copy them accurately. (See Chapters 9, 10 and 11 of How to Write Better Essays).
The content has been written by Bryan Greetham, author of How to Write Better Essays.Top
Harvard Sample Example:
As in many countries, consumers in Australia have recently had to accommodate increases in the costs of basic food (Webb & Leeder 2007). During the financial year 2007–2008, overall food prices rose 5.9% (Australian Bureau of Statistics [ABS]2008a), while some basic food prices rose sharply compared with the same period in previous years: cheese by 14.2%, milk by 12.1%, poultry by 11.0% and bread by 6.8% (ABS 2008b, p. 3). Food cost “plays a significant role in mediating food choice among low socio-economic status (SES) groups” (Harrison et al., as cited in Henderson & Foley 2010). People in low income demographics often have to reduce food spending to allow for other essentials such as housing and utilities (Douglas 2006), leading to decreased food security. The literature on food access indicates that people from low income backgrounds experience higher rates of food insecurity and obesity, and studies have found that affordability is a primary reason given for not choosing healthy foods (Banerjee 2007; Innes-Hughes et al. 2011). Thus, the assessment of food cost and affordability are essential steps in better understanding individual and community food choices.
Food costs entered the political limelight prior to the Australian 2007 federal election, with voters demanding government action to reduce prices. To honour pre-election promises, the newly elected Labor government initiated a national inquiry into grocery pricing soon after taking office (Australian Competition and Consumer Commission [ACCC] 2008). However, following the release of the grocery pricing inquiry and the consequent launch of the government website to monitor prices, critics considered there would be minimal, if any, impact on prices (Irvine 2008). This is partly because of international trends, with Australia not immune to global factors attributed to raising the costs of basic foods (Queensland Health 2001), and partly because the inquiry outcomes did nothing to address food costs.
To be food secure means to have regular access to safe, nutritionally adequate, culturally acceptable food from non-emergency sources (Kirk 2002). Food insecurity, then, describes a limited or uncertain ability to acquire appropriate foods in socially acceptable ways (Bowden & Fairley 2006). This is not merely a lack of food, but occurs when people fear running out of food, or are forced to make significant changes to their usual eating patterns due to economic constraints. The diets of those who are food insecure are likely to lack variety and be of poor quality with lower levels of micronutrients.
The Australian Guide to Healthy Eating shows the range of food groups recommended for a healthy adult (Petschel 2013). There is some evidence to demonstrate that populations living in rural areas of Australia have to pay more for healthy food than their metropolitan (‘metro’) counterparts. The Healthy Food Basket (HFB) survey conducted in Queensland demonstrated higher food costs in rural and remote parts of the state (Queensland Health 2001). In South Australia a study conducted by Douglas (2006, p. 16) demonstrated that “food costs were higher in remote areas of that state”. However, Bowden and Fairley (2006) in a survey of 42 rural towns in Victoria could find no difference in the cost of a HFB according to rurality, nor did the mean cost of the rural Victorian HFB differ significantly from a basket priced in state capital Melbourne.
Some of the above are excerpts from:
Ward, PR, Coveney, J, Verity, F, Carter, P & Schilling, M 2012, ‘Cost and affordability of healthy food in rural South Australia’, Rural and Remote Health, vol. 12, no. 2, pp. 1938-1948.
Australian Bureau of Statistics 2008a, Consumer price index Australia: March quarter 2008, http://www.ausstats.abs.gov.au/Ausstats/subscriber.nsf
Australian Bureau of Statistics 2008b, Consumer price index Australia: December quarter 2008, http://www.ausstats.abs.gov.au/Ausstats/subscriber.nsf
Australian Competition and Consumer Commission 2008, Report of the ACCC inquiry into the competitiveness of retail prices for standard groceries, https://www.accc.gov.au/system/files/Grocery%20inquiry%20report%20-%20July%202008.pdf
Banerjee, A 2007, ‘Fixed mobile substitution and lessons for food pricing’, paper presented to the Australian Competition and Consumer Commission 2007 Regulatory Conference, Queensland, 26 to 27 July.
Bowden, FJ & Fairley, CK (eds.) 2006, Eating patterns in the Northern Territory: Estimations of effective food use, Pearson.
Douglas, J 2006, ‘Food insecurity in northern Adelaide’, South Australian Council of Social Service News, vol. 15, no. 2, pp. 15-30.
Henderson, J & Foley, W 2010, ‘Brace yourselves: Reporting of rising food costs in the Australian print media’, Australian Journal of Social Issues, vol. 45, no. 4, pp. 477-492.
Innes-Hughes, C, Hardy, LL, Venugopal, K, King, LA, Wolfenden, L & Rangan, A 2011, ‘Children's consumption of energy-dense nutrient-poor foods, fruit and vegetables: Are they related’, Health Promotion Journal of Australia, vol. 22, no. 3, pp. 210-216.
Irvine, J 2008, ‘Rudd price check: He's powerless’, Sydney Morning Herald, 6 August,
Kirk, J 2002, Theorising food security, PhD thesis, University of Technology Sydney.
Petschel, K 2013, ‘The Australian guide to healthy eating: What you need to know’, Australian Coeliac, vol. 6, no. 2, pp. 21-31.
Queensland Health 2001, The 2000 healthy food access basket (HFAB) survey: Full report, https://www.health.qld.gov.au/ph/documents/hpu/9137.pdf
Webb, K & Leeder, SR 2007, ‘New Year’s resolution: Let’s get rid of excessive food prices in remote Australia’, Medical Journal of Australia, vol. 186, no. 1, pp. 7-8.